The Concurrent Impact of Cultural, Political, and Spatial Distances on International Mergers and Acquisitions
|Title||The Concurrent Impact of Cultural, Political, and Spatial Distances on International Mergers and Acquisitions|
|Publication Type||Working Paper|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Di Guardo, MC, Marrocu, E, Paci, R|
|Keywords||Cross-border M&As, cultural and political distances, european neighboring countries, European Union, geographical distance, zero-inflated models|
The paper explores the concurrent effects of cultural, political, and spatial distances on M&A flows occurring between any two countries belonging to the whole European Union (27 States) or to the European Neighbors group (16 States) over the period 2000-2011 . By employing zero-inflated negative binomial specifications, entailing both a binary and count process, we adequately model the two different mechanisms which may generate zero observations in the cross-border bilateral deals. Zeros may be due to either the lack of any transactions or unsuccessful negotiations. We find robust evidence that the multi-dimensional distance between two countries negatively affects the probability that they will engage in M&A deals, while the recurrence rate of these deals is positively related to population, gross domestic product, and technological capital and negatively related to geographical distance.